Fungal endophytes of stems and roots of Juncus trifidus subsp. trifidus from Poland


  • Andrzej Chlebicki W. Szafer Institute of Botany of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Lubicz 46, 31 512 Kraków, Poland



DSE, Juncus trifidus distribution of endophytes


Paraconiothyrium, Aureobasidium pullulans, Clonostachys rosea, Oidiodendron griseum, Penicillium miczynskii, Alternaria chartarum, Trichoderma viridescens, Umbelopsis autotrophica and Hyaloscypha finlandica have been isolated from the roots of the highland rush (Juncus trifidus L.) from Babia Gora Massif and the Tatra Mts. in the Western Carpathians. Only the Paraconiothyrium sp. was found both in roots and stems and thus can possibly be transferred from the roots to the leaves (or in opposite direction).


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


Aaltonen, R.E. Barrow, J. R. (2003). A method of evaluating systemic colonization of leaves by dark septate fungal endophytes of Bouteloa europida (Torr.) Torr. a native grass in arid southwestern USA rangelands.

Adamska, I. (2005). Fungal species new in Poland on Carex and Juncus. Acta Mycologica, 40, 19–24.

Antunes, P.M. Miller, J. Carvalho, L.M., Klironomos, J.N., Newman, J.A. (2008). Even after death the endophytic fungus of Schedonorus phoenix reduces the arbuscular mycorrhizas of other plants. Functional Ecology, 22, 912–918.

Bainier, G. (1907). Mycothéque de l’École de Pharmacie. Parte XIII. Bulletin Trimestriel de la Société Mycologique de France, 23, 94–97.

Barron, G. L. (1962). New species and new records of Oidiodendron. Canadian Journal of Botany, 40, 589–607.

Bayman, P., Otero, J.T. (2006). Microbial endophytes of orchid roots. In: B.J.E. Schulz, C.J.C. Boyle, N. Sieber, (eds.), Microbial root endophytes. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Verlag, p. 153–177.

Bayman, P., Lebron, L.L., Tremblay, R.L., Lodge D.J. (1997). Variation in endophytic fungi from roots and leaves of Lepanthes (Orchidaceae). New Phytologist, 135, 143–149.

Bettucci, L. Alonso, R., Ticornia, S. (1999). Endophytic mycobiota of healthy twigs and the assemblage of species associated with twig lesions of Eucalyptus globulus and E. grandis in Uruguay. Mycological. Research, 103(4), 468–472.

Blok, W.J., Bollen, G.J. (1995). Fungi on the roots and stem bases of asparagus in the Netherlands: species and pathogenocity. European Journal of. Plant Pathology, 101, 15–24.

Budziszewska, J, Szupuła, W., Wilk, M., Wrzosek, M. (2014). Paraconiothyrium babiogorense sp. nov., a new endophyte from fir club moss Huperzia selago (Huperziaceae). Mycotaxon, 115, 457–468.

Butler, M.J., Day, A.W. (1998). Fungal melanins: a review. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 44(12), 1115–1136.

Butler, M.J., Henson, J.M., Money, N.P. (2001). Pathogenic properties of fungal melanins. Mycologia, 93(1), 1–8.

Cabral, D., Stone, J.K., Carroll, G.C. (1993). The internal mycobiota of Juncus spp.: microscopic and cultural observations of infection patterns. Mycological Research, 97(3), 367–376.

Chlebicki A. (1990). Brunnipila calycioides (Rehm) Baral an alpine fungus new to Poland. Acta Mycologica, 26, 33–36.

Chlebicki A. (2002). Biogeographic relationships between fungi and selected glacial relict plants. Monographiae Botanicae, 90, 1–230.

Chlebicki, A. (2009). Some endophytes of Juncus trifidus from Tatra Mts in Poland. Acta Mycologica, 44, 11–17.

Christensen, M., Frisvad, J. C., Tuthill, D. (1999). Taxonomy of Penicillium miczynskii group based on morphology and secondary metabolites. Mycological Research, 103(5), 527–541.

Dalpé, Y. (1991). Status endomycorhizien du genre Oidiodendron. Canadian Journal of Botany, 69, 1712–1714.

Day, M., Hall, J.L., Currah, R. (2011). Phialide arrangement and character evolution in the helotialean anamorph genera Cadophora and Phialocephala. Mycologia, 104(2), 371-81.

Damicone, J.P., Manning, W. J. (1982). Avirulent strains of Fusarium oxysporum protect asparagus seedlings from crown rot. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 4, 143–146.

Drábková, L., Kirschner, J., Vlček, Č. and Pačes, V. (2004). TrnL-trnF intergenic spaces and trnL intron define major clades within Luzula and Juncus (Juncaceae): importance of structural mutation. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 59(1), 1–10.

Drábková, L., Kirschner, J. Vlček, Č. (2006). Phylogenetic relationships within Luzula DC. and Juncus L. (Juncaceae): a comprison of phylogenetic signals of trnL-trnF intergenic spacer, trnL intron and rbcL plastome sequence data. Cladistic, 22(2), 132–143.

Drábková L., Kirschner, J., Seberg, O., Petersen, G. Vlček, Č. (2003). Phylogeny of the Juncaceae based on rbcL sequences, with special emphasis on Luzula DC. and Juncus L. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 240, 133–147.

Ellis M.B. (1976). More Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes. Kew, Surrey: Commonwealth Mycological Institute, England.

El-Zayat, S.A., Nassar, M.S. M., El-Hissy, F.T., Abdel-Motaal, F.F., Ito, S.I. (2008). Mycoflora associated with Hyoscyamus muticus growing under an extremely arid desert environment (Aswan region, Egypt). Journal of Basic Microbiology, 48(2), 82–92.

Ernst, M., Mendgen K.W., Wirsel, S.G. (2003). Endophytic fungi mutualists: seed-borne Stagonospora spp. Enhance reed biomass production in axenic microcosms. Molecular Plant Microbe Interactions, 16(7), 580–587.

Fávaro, L.C.L, Sebastianes, F.L.S, Araúj, W.L (2012). Epicoccum nigrum P16, a sugarcane endophyte, produces antifungal compounds and induces root growth. PLoS ONE, 7(6), e36826.

Fehrer, J.M. Reblova, M.V., Bambasov, V. Vohník, M. (2019). The root-symbiotic Rhizoscyphus ericae aggregate and Hyaloscypha (Leotiomycetes) are congeneric: Phylogenetic and experimental evidence. Studies in Mycology, 92, 195–225.

Fell, J.W., Hunter, I.L. (1979). Fungi associated with the decomposition of the black rush Juncus roemerianus in South Florida. Mycologia, 71(2), 322–342.

Feng, P., Lu, Q., Najafzadeh, M.J., Gerrits van den Ende, A.H.G., Sun, J., Li, R., Xi, L., Vicente, V.A., Lai, W., Lu, C., de Hoog G.S. (2012). Cyphellophora and its relatives in Phialophora: biodiversity and possible role in human infection. Fungal Diversity, 65, 17–45.

Fischer, P.J. (1996). Survival and spread of the endophyte Stagonospora pteridiicola in Pteridium aquilinum, other ferns and some flowering plants. New Phytologist, 132(1), 119–122.

Galmany, T.O, Yamauchi, A., Kono,Y., Hioki, M. (1992). Specific colonization of the hypodermis of sorhum roots by an endophyte, Polymyxa sp. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 38(3), 573–578.

Grube, M., Schmid, F., Berg, G. (2011). Black fungi and associated bacterial communities in the phyllosphere of grapevine. Fungal Biology, 115(10), 978–986.

Grünig, C.R., Sieber, T.N., Rogers, S.O., Holdernrieder, O. (2002). Spatial distribution of dark septate endophytes in a confined forest plot. Mycological Research, 106(7), 832–840.

Grünig, C.R., Duo, A., Sieber, T.N., Holdenrieder, O. (2008). Assignment of species rank to six reproductively isolated cryptic species of the Phialocephala fortinii s.l. – Acephala applanata species complex. Mycologia, 100(1), 47–67.

Hargreaves, J., Brickle, P. van West, P. (2018). The fungal ecology of seabird nesting sites in the Falkland Islands indicates a niche for mycoparasites. Fungal Ecology, 36, 99–108.

Hambleton, S., Currah, R.S. (1997). Fungal endophytes from the roots of alpine and boreal Ericaceae. Canadian Journal of Botany, 75(9), 1570–1581.

Haselwandter, K, Read, D.J. (1980). Fungal association of roots of dominant and sub-dominant plants in high-alpine vegetation systems with special reference to mycorrhiza. Oecologia, 45, 57–62.

Hoff, J.A., Klopfenstein, N.B., McDonald, G.I., Tonn, J.R., Kim, M.-S., Zambino, P.J., Hessburg, P.F., Rogers, J.D., Peever, T.L., Carris, L.M. (2004). Fungal endophytes in woody roots of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa). Forest Pathology, 34, 255–271.

Holdenrieder, O., Sieber, T.N. (1992). Fungal associations of serially washed healthy non-mycorrhizal roots of Picea abies. Mycological Research, 96(2), 151–156.

De Hoog, G.S, Zalar, P., Urzì, C., De Leo, F., Yurlova, N.A., Sterflinger, K. (1999). Relationships of dothideaceous black yeasts and meristematic fungi based on 5.8S and ITS2 rDNA sequence comparison. Studies in Mycology, 43, 31–37.

Houbraken, J.A.M., Frisvad, J.C., Samson, R.A. (2010). Taxonomy of Penicillium citrinum and related species. Fungal Diversity, 44, 117–133.

Houbraken, J.A.M, Frisvad, J.C., Samson, R.A. (2011). Taxonomy of Penicillium section Citrina. Studies in Mycology, 70(1), 53–138.

Huang, X., Li, Y., Su, Y., Ding, J., Zhang, K. (2009). The influences on conidiophores pleomorphism in Clonostachys rosea and RAPD analysis in the mutant producing only verticillate conidiophores. Annals of Microbiology, 59(1), 39–44.

Jacewski, B, Urbaniak, J., Kwiatkowski, P, Pusz, W. (2019). Microfungal diversity of Juncus trifidus L. and Salix herbacea L. at isolated locations in the Sudetes and Carpathian Mountains. Acta Mycologica, 54(1), 11–18.

Jaklitsch, W.M., Samuels, G.J., Dodd, S.L., Lu, B-S., Druzhinina, S. (2006). Hypocrea rufa/Trichoderma viride: reassessment, and desription of five closely related species with and without warted conidia. Studies in Mycology, 55, 135–177.

Jansson, H.B., Lopez-Llorca, L.V. (2001). Biology of nematophagous fungi. In: J.K. Misra, B.W. Horn (eds.), Trichomycetes and other fungal groups. Enfield: Science Publishers, p. 145–173.

Joly, P. (1964). Le Genre Alternaria. Encyclopédie Mycologique XXXIII. Paris: Lechevalier, 250 pp.

Jumpponen, A. (2001). Dark septate endophytes – are they mycorrhizal? Mycorrhiza, 11, 207–211.

Jumpponen, A., Trappe, J.M. (1998). Dark-septate root endophytes a review with special reference to facultative biotrophic symbiosis. New Phytologist, 140, 295–310.

Kehr, R.D., Wulf, A. (1993). Fungi associated with above-ground portions of declining oaks (Quercus robur) in Germany. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 33, 18–27.

Ko Ko, T.W., Stephenson, S.L., Bahkali, A.H., Hyde, K.D. (2011). From morphology to molecular biology: can we use sequence data to identify fungal endophytes? Fungal Diversity, 50, 113–120.

Kohlmeyer, J. Volkmann-Kohlmeyer, B. (2000). Fungi on Juncus roemerianus 14. Three new Coelomycetes, including Floricola, anam. – gen. nov. Botanica Marina, 43, 385–392.

Kowalski, T. (1980). Fungi infecting needles of Pinus silvestris in Poland in relation to air pollution zone. In: Millar C.S. (ed.), Current research on conifer needle diseases. Sarajewo: Proc. IUFRO W.P. on Needle Diseases, 1981, p. 93–98.

Kowalski, T. (1983). Fungi occurred in forest injured by air-pollutants in the upper Silesia and Cracow industrial regions. 9. Mycoflora of Quercus robur L. and Quercus rubra L. located in a zone with medium-high air-pollution damage. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 13, 46–59.

Kowalski, T., Kehr, R.D. (1992). Endophytic fungal colonization of branch bases in several forest tree species. Sydowia, 44, 137–168.

Kozak, E., Kozłowska, M. (2008). Hyphomycetes, genera from Fusidium to Helminthosporium. In: W. Mułenko, T. Majewski, M. Ruszkiewicz-Michalska (eds.), A preliminary checklist of micromycetes in Poland. Kraków: W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, p. 403–411.

Kwaśna, H. (2002). Changes in microfungal communities in roots of Quercus robur stumps and their possible effect on colonization by Armillaria. Journal of Phytopathology, 150(7), 403–411.

Latter, P.M, Cragg, J.B. (1967). The decomposition of Juncus squarrosus leaves and microbiological changes in the profile of Juncus moor. Journal of Ecology, 55(2), 465–482.

Martini, M., Musetti, R., Grisan, S., Polizotto, R., Borselli, S., Pavan, F., Osler, R. (2009). DNA-dependent detection of the grapevine fungal endophytes Aureobasidium pullulans and Epicoccum nigrum. Plant Disease, 93(10), 993–998.

Menéndez, M. (2008). Leaf growth, senescence and decomposition of Juncus maritimus Lam. in coastal Mediterranean marsh. Aquatic Botany, 89(4), 365–371.

Menéndez, A., Bertoni, M.D., Cabral, D. (1995). Comparative study of occurrence of fungal endophytes in Juncus species from Argentina. Nova Hedwigia, 60(3–4), 583–588.

Menéndez, A., Bertoni, M.D., Cabra,l D. (1997). Fungal endophytes in Juncus imbricatus var. chamissonis: identyfication of colonization patterns. Revista Iberoamericana de Micologìa, 14(3), 125–128.

Menkis, A., Allmer, J., Vasiulauskas, R., Lygis, V., Stenlid, J., Finlay, R. (2004). Ecology and molecular characterization of dark septate fungi from roots, living stems, coarse and fine woody debris. Mycological Research, 108(8), 965–973.

Meyer, W., Gams, W. (2003). Delimitation of Umbelopsis (Mucorales, Umbelopsidaceae fam. Nov.) based on ITS sequence and RFLP data. Mycological Research, 107(3), 339–350.

Mucciarelli, M., Scannerini, S., Bertea, C., Maffei, M. (2002). An ascomycetous endophyte isolated from Mentha piperita L.: biological features and molecular studies. Mycologia, 94, 28-39.

Narayan, C.P., Hyang, B.L. (2014). First record of endophytic Paraconiothyrium brasiliense isolated from Chinese Maple leaves in Korea. Journal of Mycology and Infection, 42(4), 349–352.

Narisawa, K., Tokumasu, S., Hashiba T. (1998). Suppression of clubroot formation in Chinese cabbage by the root endophytic fungus, Heteroconium chaetospira. Plant Pathology, 47, 206–210.

Newsham, K.K. (1994). First record of intracellular sporulation by a coelomycete fungus. Mycological Research, 98(12), 1390–1392.

Owczarek-Kościelniak, M., Chlebicki, A., Sterflinger, K. (2016). Aureobasidium pullulans from Juncus trifidus L. roots. Phytotaxa, 266(2), 125–133.

Petrini, O., Dreyfuss, M. (1981). Endophytische Pilze in Epiphytischen Araceae, Bromeliaceae und Orchidaceae. Sydowia, 34, 135–148.

Philipson, M.N. (1991). Ultrastructure of Gliocladium-like endophyte of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) I. Vegetative phase and leaf blade sporulation. New Phytologist, 117, 271–280.

Powell, C.L. (1975). Rushes and sedges are non-mycotrophic. Plant and Soil, 45, 481–484.

Pugh, G.J.F., Buckley, N.G. (1971). Aureobasidium pullulans: an endophyte in sycamore and other trees. Transactions of the British Mycologicxal Society, 57(2), 227–231.

Raper, K.B., Thom, C. (1949). A manual of the Penicillia. Baltimore, Maryland: William and Wilkins, 875 pp.

Rice, A.V., Currah, R.S. (2006). Oidiodendron maius: saprobe in Sphagnum peat, mutualist in ericaceous roots? In: B. Schultz, C. Boyle, T.N. Sieber (eds.), Microbial root endophytes. Soil Biology, 9, p. 227–260.

Robinson, C.H., Fisher, P.J., Sutton, B.C. (1998). Fungal biodiversity in dead leaves of fertilized plants of Dryas octopetala from a high arctic site. Mycological Research, 102(5), 573–576.

Rubini, M.R., Silva-Ribeiro, R.T., Pomella, A.W.V., Maki, C.S., Araújo, W.L., Santos, D.Rd., Azevedo, J.L. (2005). Diversity of endophytic fungal community of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) and biological control of Crinipellis perniciosa, causal agent of Witches’ Broom Disease. International Journal of Biological Sciences, 1(1), 24–33.

Samson, R.A., Frisvad, J.C. (2004). Penicillium subgenus Penicillium: new taxonomic schemes, myctoxins and other extrolites. Studies in Mycology, 49(49), 1–260.

Samuels, G.J., Chaverri, P., Farr, D.F., McCray, E.B. (2008). Trichoderma Online, Systematic Mycology and Microbiology Laboratory. ARS, USDA. Retrieved October 3.

Sanchez-Marquez, R., Albarracín Guillem, J.M., Vicens Salort, E., Jabaloyes Vivas, J. (2020). A Systemic Methodology for the Reduction of Complexity of the Balanced Scorecard in the Manufacturing environment. Cogent Business and Management, 7(1), 18. 020.1720944

Scheuer, Ch. (1988). Ascomyceten auf Cyperaceen und Juncaceen im Ostalpenraum. Berlin-Stuttgart: Bibiotheca Mycologica. Band 123, 1–274.

Scheuer, Ch. (1996). Nauere Funde von Arthrinium Arten (Hyphomycetes, Fungi imperfecti) aus Österreich. Österreichische Zeitschrift für. Pilzkunde, 5, 1–21.

Scheuer, Ch., Chlebicki, A. (1997). Recent collections of miscelaneous microfungi from South Poland. Acta Mycologica, 32, 147–172.

Scheuer, Ch. (1999). Some important corrections to theAscomycetes recorded on Cyperaceae and Juncaceae from the eastern Alps by Scheuer (1988). Mycotaxon, 23, 33–44.

Scott, J.A. (2001). Studies in indoor fungi. PhD. thesis, Department of Botany, University of Toronto, Ont., 441 pp.

Scott, J.A., Wong, B., Summerbell, R.C., Untereiner, W.A. (2008). A survey of Penicillium brevicompactum and P. bialowiezense from indoor environments, with commentary on the taxonomy of the P. brevicompactum group. Botany, 86(7), 732–741.

Seifert, K.A., Frisvad, J.C. (2000). Penicillium on solid wood products. In: R.A. Samson, J.I. Pitt (eds.), Integration of modern taxonomic methods for Penicillium and Aspergillus classification. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publisher, p. 285–298.

Schroers, H.J., Samuels, G.J., Seifert, K.A., Gams, W. (1999). Classification of the mycoparasite Gliocladium roseum in Clonostachys as C. rosea. Its relationship to Bionectria ochroleuca, and notes on other Gliocladium-like fungi. Mycologia, 91(2), 365–385.

Schulz, B., Boyle, C. (2006). What are endophytes? In: B. Schulz, C. Boyle, T. Sieber (eds.), Microbial root endophytes. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer, p. 1–13.

Schulz, B., Boyle, C. (2005). The endophytic continuum. Mycological Research, 109(6), 661–686.

Sieber, T.N., Riesen, T.K., Müller, E., Fried, P.M. (1988). Endophytic fungi in four winter wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) differing in resistance against Stagonospora nodorum (Berk.) Cast. & Germ. = Septoria nodorum (Berk.) Berk. Journal of Phytopathology, 122(4), 289–306.

Simmons, E.G. (2007). Alternaria: an identification manual. In: Biodiversity No 6. Utrecht, The Netherlands: CBS fungal diversity centre.

Smith, S.E., Smith, F.A. (1990). Structure and function of the interfaces in biotrophic symbioses as they relate to nutrient transport. New Phytologist, 114(1), 1–38.

Smith, V.L, Wilcox, W.F, Harman, G.E. (1990). Potential biological control of Phytophtora root and crown rots of apple by Trichoderma and Gliocladium spp. Phytopatology, 80, 880–885.

Stone, J.K., Bacon, C.W., White, J.F. (2000). An overview of endophytic microbes. Endophytism defined. In: C.W. Bacon, J.F. White (eds), Microbial endophytes. New York: Basel, Marcel Dekker, pp. 3–29.

Stoyke, G., Currah, R.S. (1991). Endophytic fungi from the mycorrhizae of alpine ericoid plants. Canadian Journal of Botany, 69(2), 347–352.

Su, Y.Y., Guo, L.D., Hyde, K.D. (2010). Response of endophytic fungi of Stipa grandis to experimental plant function group removal in Inner Mongolia steppe, China. Fungal Diversity, 43, 93–101.

Suková, M. (2004). Fungi on Juncus trifidus in the Czech Republic. Czech Mycology, 56(1–2), 63–84.

Suková, M., Chlebicki, A. (2004). Fungi on Juncus trifidus in the Czech Republic (II) with taxonomical notes to some species. Czech Mycology, 56(3–4), 203–221.

Sutton, B.C., Hennebert, G.L. (1994). Interconnections amongst anamorphs and their possible contribution to ascomycete systematics. In: D.L. Hawksworth (ed.), Ascomycete systematics: problems and perspectives in the nineties. New York: Plenum Press, p. 77–100.

Sutton, J.C., Liu, W., Ma, J., Brown, W.G., Stewart, J.F., Walker, G.D. (2008). Evaluation of the fungal endophyte Clonostachys rosea as an inoculants to enhance growth, fitness and productivity of crop plants. ISHS Acta Horticulture 782. IV International Symposium of seed transplant and stand establishment of horticultural crops; translating seed and seedling physiology into technology.

Truszkowska, W. (1976). Les champignons de generes Pseudovalsa, Melanconis et Cryptospora en Pologne. Acta Mycologica, 12(1), 91–112.

Untereiner, W.A., Angus, A., Réblová, M., Orr, M.J. (2008). Systematics of the Phialophora verrucosa complex: new insights from analyses of beta-tubulin, large subunit nuclear rDNA and ITS sequences. Botany, 86(7), 742–750.

Usuki, F., Narisava, K., Yonezawa, M. Kakishima, M., Hashiba, T. (2002). An efficient metod for colonisation of Chinese cabbage by the root endophytic fungus Heteroconium chaetospira. Journal of General Plant Pathology, 68, 326–332.

Vaz, A.B.M., Mota, R.C, Bomfim, M.R.Q., Vieira, M.L.A., Zani, C.L., Rosa, C.A., Rosa, L.H. (2009). Antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi associated with Orchidaceae in Brazil. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 555(12), 1381–1391.

Verkley, G.J.M., da Silva, M., Wicklow, D.T., Crous, P. W. (2004). Paraconiothyrium, a new genus to accommodate the mycoparasite Coniothyrium minitans, anamorphs of Paraphaeosphaeria, and four new species. Studies in Mycology, 50, 323–335.

Waller, F., Achatz, B., Baltruschat, H. (2005). The endophytic function Piriformospora indica reprograms barley to salt-stress tolerance, disease resistance, and higher field. Procedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 102(38), 13386–13391.

Wilcox, H.E., Wang, C.J.K. (1987). Ectomycorrhizal and ectendomycorrhizal associations of Phialophora finlandia with Pinus resinosa, Picea rubens, and Betula alleghaensis. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 17, 976–990.

Yan, Z.H., Roger,s S.O., Wang, C.J.K. (1995). Assessment of Phialophoraspecies based on ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers andmorphology. Mycologia, 87(1), 72–83.

Zaleski, K.M. (1927). Über die in Polen gefundenen Arten der Gruppe Penicillium Link. I, II und III Teil. Bulletin International de L’Academie Polonaise des Sciences: Mathematique et Nature, Series B, 417–563.

Zhan, F., He, Y., Zu, Y., Li, T., Zhao, Z. (2011). Characterization of melanin isolated from a dark septate endophyte (DSE), Exophiala pisciphila. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 27, 2483–2489.




How to Cite

Chlebicki, A. (2023). Fungal endophytes of stems and roots of Juncus trifidus subsp. trifidus from Poland. Annales Universitatis Paedagogicae Cracoviensis Studia Naturae, 8(1).



Botany and Algology, Mycology